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Scientific study reveals how Parkinson’s disease appears

The unexpected toxicity of very low doses of neurotoxin (MPTB) in mice has been a key to understand the origin of Parkinson’s disease

This study led by researchers at the University of Bordeaux and at the CNRS in France is certainly an important discovery to understand how Parkinson’s disease appears, that’s to say why dopamine neurons die in advance?

Researchers from the National Centre for scientific research in Bordeaux (France) found on the animal model, that the injection of a neurotoxic product (MPTP) on laboratory mice has substantially the same effects as those found in Parkinson’s disease. This finding supports the hypothesis that Parkinson’s disease origins in environmental factors such as toxins to which patients were exposed in their environment (products used at home, for the garden, the surroundings or at work .)

However, this study raises a key factor, because the problem of this hypothesis of environmental origin of Parkinson’s disease is lack of evidence in the analysis: few toxic substances have been found in the brain of patients with Parkinson. The particularity of this new study is that injected dose into the brains of mice was extremely weak. However, destruction of dopaminergic neurons and motor problems associated were identical between a low dose and a more important dose!

The inability of cells to produce a detoxification mechanism, even in very small doses, could be key explanation in the origin of Parkinson’s disease. This could explain, why there is only a  little presence of these toxins in the brain of Parkinson’s patients.

Life Better Parkinson’s tip:

Avoid the plague all toxic substances (* COPs) as much as you can. Products of our daily lives could be discrete murderers that go unnoticed by corporate irresponsibility, lack of laws, especially scientific studies and lack of knowledge on our side.

* =Cops Persistent Organic Compounds

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Are stem-cell therapies for parkinson’s disease ready for clinical trials?

International consortium suggests caution, as reported in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease

Amsterdam, NL, March 29, 2016 – As stem cell-based therapies are moving rapidly towards clinical trials, treatments for Parkinson’s Disease (PD), an incurable condition, may be on the horizon. A recent announcement of a Phase I/IIa clinical trial involving transplantation of stem cells into the first human subjects has raised hope among patients and sparked discussions in the research community. In a commentary published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, authors propose five key questions that should be addressed as this trial begins.

News of California-based biotechnology company, International Stem Cell Corporation’s (ISCO) clinical trial spread rapidly through online and print news and social media. Many PD patients and their families have questioned whether they should try to sign up for such a study. “As with many such exiting news items, however, one should also react with caution, especially since the outcome of this trial can affect the development of other stem cell programs moving towards clinical trials,” explained lead author Roger A. Barker, PhD, of the John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, UK.

In the wake of clinical trial announcements from ISCO it is timely to provide insights into how the opportunities provided to PD patients in this and similar trials should be evaluated. Without this, the patient community is left trying to interpret complex scientific issues on its own, and individual patients cannot make informed decisions on whether they should seek to participate in the planned trials or not.

The authors review the clinical transplantation trial in PD planned by ISCO this year in light of the criteria defined by the GForce-PD. This global collaborative initiative aims to define criteria to gauge progress from experimental results towards clinical trials, while ensuring that all steps are conducted to the highest standard and that the trials are not initiated prematurely.

Before any stem-cell-based trial in PD is done, the authors call for discussion of these five key questions:

1. What is being transplanted, and what is the proposed mechanism of action?

2. What are the pre-clinical safety and efficacy data supporting the use of the proposed stem cell product?

3. Can arguments concerning ethics, risk mitigation, or trial logistics outweigh concerns regarding the expected efficacy of the cell and constitute a primary justification for choosing one cell type over another in a clinical trial?

4. What is being claimed regarding the potential therapeutic value of the stem cell-based therapy – better control of symptoms or a cure?

5. What is the regulatory oversight of the trial and is it guided by input from experts in the field?

In this commentary, the authors briefly review how cell-based therapies for PD have evolved and discuss some of the early results, as well as some of the ethical issues concerning fetal stem-cell use. They then elaborate on the five key questions and express some concern that there is missing or incomplete information available from ISCO. In particular, there are concerns that the particular cell types being transplanted may not function as desired, and that supporting safety and efficacy data have not been made public. The consortium also suggests that the length of follow-up in the proposed trial may not be sufficient.

While early claims suggesting the possibility of a “cure” had been made, ISCO has now taken a more measured position regarding potential benefits. Nevertheless, the authors caution that exaggerated claims are all too common, given the regulatory hurdles, commercial interests, and personal ambitions of the participants in early-stage clinical trials.

With the reality of the first human clinical trial in patients with PD upon us, co-author and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease Patrik Brundin, MD, PhD, Director of the Center for Neurodegenerative Science at Van Andel Research Institute in Grand Rapids, MI, commented, “This is an exciting prospect but should only be undertaken when all the necessary pre-clinical data and regulatory approvals have been obtained and verified and the criteria for moving those cells to trials fully resolved and met. Acting prematurely has the potential not only to tarnish many years of scientific work, but can threaten to derail and damage this exciting field of regenerative medicine. Hopefully, in 2016, we are ready to take a more careful approach as we strive to repair the PD brain with stem cell-based therapies, avoiding many of the mistakes that have dogged this field over the last three decades.”

Original source : https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-03/ip-ast032916.php

 

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Falls, an early indicator of Parkinson’s disease

Las caídas, un indicador precoz de la enfermedad de Parkinson?

Studies show that falls could be a valuable indicator for the work of early prevention of Parkinson.

We know that early treatment of Parkinson’s disease improves the management of it.

Changes in lifestyle, dietary supplements, support from a medical and paramedical personnel can slow the progression of certain types of diseases. For patients with Parkinson’s disease, a large part of the dopamine nervous system is severely damaged by before the appearance of symptoms common misfortune. Therefore the diagnosis is very late in the evolution of the problem.

A case-control study in Sweden, published in the journal PLoS Medicine, has studied falls and hip fractures. The researchers found that patients of the parkinson disease had a current frequency of falls and hip fractures well above the average of the population and often long before the definitive diagnosis of the disease.

The smaller motor problems that lead falls could , according to the researchers, be an excellent way for early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. In fact, this type of accident significantly involved the group that was studied up to 26 years before the Declaration and the official diagnosis of the disease.

In fact, parkinson’s disease, with its characteristic symptoms of stiffness, tremor, loss of balance and others appear only once 50-80% of dopaminergic nerves are damaged.

Before developing reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis of this disease, falls could be a valuable tool for the early prevention work.

In combination with the advances in the development of solutions that could at least slow the progression of the disease, this early detection of predisposition may help to better understand this disease often too late discovered.

Original Source:

Risk of injurious Fall and Hip Fracture up to 26 and before the diagnosis of ParkinsonDisease: Nested Case-Control Studies in Nationwide Cohort Helena Nyström, Anna Nordström, PeterNordström.

  • PublishedFebruary 2, 2016
  • DOI: 10.1371 / journal.pmed.1001954
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Medical records documentation of constipation preceding Parkinson disease: A case-control study

OBJECTIVE:

Parkinson disease (PD) may affect the autonomic nervous system and may cause constipation; however, few studies have explored constipation preceding the motor onset of PD. We investigated constipation preceding PD using a case-control study design in a population-based sample.

METHODS:

Using the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we identified 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the medical records-linkage system to ascertain the occurrence of constipation preceding the onset of PD (or index year).

RESULTS:

Constipation preceding PD or the index year was more common in cases than in controls (odds ratio [OR] 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49 to 4.11; p = 0.0005). This association remained significant after adjusting for smoking and coffee consumption (ever vs never), and after excluding constipation possibly induced by drugs. In addition, the association remained significant in analyses restricted to constipation documented 20 or more years before the onset of motor symptoms of PD. Although the association was stronger in women than in men and in patients with PD with rest tremor compared with patients with PD without rest tremor, these differences were not significant.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that constipation occurring as early as 20 or more years before the onset of motor symptoms is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease.

Author information: Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA